The novelty of the new classification comes from the fact. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Given that semiquantitative highresolution computed tomography scoring provides valuable diagnostic information, all patients suspected of having idiopathic interstitial pneumonia should undergo this technique. They are characterized by cellular infiltration of the interstitial compartment of the lung with varying degrees of inflammation and fibrosis. Knowledge achieved in recent years has resulted in the publication of the new classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, according to which there are three groups. Interstitial pneumonia is a disease in which the meshlike. Pdf to illustrate the clinical and radiological features of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias iips, according to the american thoracic society. This page includes the following topics and synonyms. Society classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias iips. Risk of surgical lung biopsy in idiopathic interstitial. American thoracic societyeuropean respiratory society. Classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias scielo. David lynch and colleagues recently presented a fleischner society white paper on the evaluation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ipf in the lancet respiratory medicine.
Martinez university of michigan health system, ann arbor, michigan diffuseparenchymallungdiseasesdpldsareagroupofdisorders that involve the space between the epithelial and endothelial basement membranes. Rosane duarte achcar md, in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 2019. Initially, we excluded patients who presented with. These diseases typically affect the pulmonary interstitium, although some also have a component affecting the airways for instance, cryptogenic organizing pneumonitis.
There is progressive pulmonary fibrosis and the median survival is 35 years. Classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Pdf idiopathic interstitial pneumonias ahmed fahim. Classified into 8 histologic subtypes, all are characterized by varying degrees of inflammation and fibrosis and all cause dyspnea. List the seven entities included in the atsers classi. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias iips are diffuse interstitial lung diseases of unknown cause. Principles guiding the assessment of patients with idiopathic.
Highresolution computed tomography plays an important role in the initial diagnosis, the assessment of disease extent, the. Part 2, the interstitial pneumoniasclinical, histologic, and ct manifestations emma c. Berkowitz2 ferguson ec, berkowitz ea 1department of radiology, university of texas houston. It is characterized by progressive worsening of dyspnea and lung function and is associated with a poor prognosis. Usual interstitial pneumonia the uip pattern is most frequently associat ed with ipf. Mcnemar tests were subsequently used to test whether two probabilities of agreement conducted during. Figure a shows the location of the lungs and airways in the body. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia nsip can be idiopathic or can be seen in association with connective tissue disease, hiv infection, a variety of drugs, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosisusual pneumonia pattern. The inset image shows a detailed view of the lung s airways and air sacs in crosssection. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia pubmed central pmc.
The general term idiopathic interstitial pneumonia includes usual interstitial pneumonia uip, nonspecific interstitial pneu monia nsip, respiratory. The statement discussed selection of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias for surgical lung biopsy and avoidance of unneeded biopsy, particularly for patients with classical. Ipf is characterized by progressive worsening of dyspnea and lung. A checklist is provided for the clinical evaluation of patients with suspected usual interstitial pneumonia uip. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia what is the effect of. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ipf is defined as a specific form of chronic, progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause, primarily occurring in older adults, limited to the lungs, and associated with the histopathologic andor radiologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia uip. The iips are further subdivided into categories that include usual interstitial pneumonia idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ipf if the usual interstitial pneumonia is idiopathic in origin and. Diagnostic criteria for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis the. Classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias ncbi. Clinical features, highresolution computed tomography hrct 1014, and surgical lung biopsy slb all play a role in establishing a diagnosis. A case of idiopathic bronchiolocentric interstitial pneumonia.
Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia do community and academic physicians agree on diagnosis. Kaplanmeier survival curves in patients with uip solid line,n 106, nsip dotted line, n 33, and rbilddipdashed line, n22 grouped by histologic classification p 0. Much has changed in our understanding of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia during the past decade, most important being our appreciation of the clinical relevance of histopathology. Typical uip hrct pattern is illustrated elsewhere 1, 8. An international group of clinicians, radiologists and pathologists evaluated patients with previously identified idiopathic interstitial pneumonia iip to. Because acute interstitial pneumonia is idiopathic, other specific causes of acute lung injury must be excluded before making this diagnosis. Acute or subacute iips also have been described as rapidly progressive interstitial. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias wiley online. Interstitial lung disease european respiratory society. Update for pathologists on idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia cop is a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia characterized by lung inflammation and scarring that obstructs the small airways and air sacs of the lungs alveoli. A usual interstitial pneumonia uip pattern on chest ct scans is highly suggestive of uip pathologic findings.
Tamera j corte, athol u wells and harold r collard acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias hiroyuki taniguchi and yasuhiro kondoh department of respiratory medicine and allergy, tosei general hospital, seto, aichi, japan abstract. What every radiologist should know about idiopathic interstitial. Current classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Although the disease has been considered rare, it occurs with similar frequency to that of stomach, brain, and testicular cancers.
Usual interstitial pneumonia uip is a histologic pattern characterized by nonuniform, lower zone, subpleural, and paraseptal predominant lung injury defined by geographic heterogeneity and architectural distortion. Clinical features, highresolution computed tomography hrct 10 14, and surgical lung biopsy slb 15. Subclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonia based on clinicalradiologicalpathological criteria has highlighted important pathogenic, therapeutic and prognostic implications. Clinical features, highresolution computed tomography hrct. Idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia what is idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Murray and nadels textbook of respiratory medicine sixth edition, 2016. What every radiologist should know about idiopathic. In the context of suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ipf, accurate noninvasive diagnosis requires recognition of the hallmark usual interstitial pneumonia uip pattern on imaging, obviating lung biopsy 1, 2. The present study also provides support for a stepwise diagnostic approach to new patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.
Ipf is the most important and common form of chronic interstitial lung disease ild. The diagnostic criteria for nsip were summarized in a recent ats workshop 2. Idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease desquamative interstitial pneumonia cryptogenic organising pneumonia acute interstitial pneumonia rare idiopathic interstitial pneumonias idiopathic lymphoid interstitial pneumonia idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis. Idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia nsip is now accepted as a specific clinicopathologic entity. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia should be suspected in any patient with unexplained interstitial lung disease. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most common of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. It is characterized by progressive worsening of dyspnea and lung function and.
Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias iips are interstitial lung diseases of unknown etiology that share similar clinical and radiologic features and are distinguished primarily by the histopathologic patterns on lung biopsy. Idiopathic nsip is a rare diagnosis and requires exclusion of these other possible causes. Survival of patients with biopsyproven usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Pdf idiopathic interstitial pneumonia adincristian. Management of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.
Update for pathologists on idiopathic interstitial pneumonias brandon t. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias radiology reference. Histopathologic subsets of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia iip exhibit different prognoses 1 9. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias iips are part of a broad, heterogeneous group of interstitial lung diseases that encompasses more than 200 acute or chronic. Idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, or idiopathic nsip, is a chronic lung disease in which inflammation andor scar tissue fibrosis builds up. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, usual interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis, rbild, acute interstitial pneumonia, hammanrich disease, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Pneumonias are often thought of as infections, but these diseases do not appear to result from infection. A case of idiopathic bronchiolocentric interstitial pneumonia article pdf available in tuberculosis and respiratory diseases 663. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a subset of diffuse interstitial lung diseases of unknown etiology characterized by expansion of the interstitial compartment ie, that portion of the lung parenchyma sandwiched between the epithelial and endothelial basement membranes with an infiltrate of inflammatory cells.
All interstitial lung diseases affect the interstitium, a part of your lungs. In the latest classification of the major idiopathic interstitial pneumonias iip, the term smoking. The role of ct is expanded to permit diagnosis of ipf without. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most common type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Steroidresponsive idiopathic interstitial lung disease in two dogs. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias iips constitute a heterogeneous group of acute or chronic pulmonary diseases of unknown etiology, caused by lesion of the pulmonary parenchyma, resulting in varying degrees of inflammation and fibrosis. May 15, 2007 histopathologic subsets of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia iip exhibit different prognoses 19.
Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome ips is defined as an idiopathic syndrome of pneumopathy after hsct, with evidence of widespread alveolar injury and in which infectious etiologies and cardiac dysfunction, acute renal. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias iips constitute a heterogeneous group of acute or chronic pulmonary diseases of unknown etiology, caused by lesion of the. Diagnostic criteria for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis american thoracic. Clinical significance of histological classification of. In the 20 reclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias iips, two rare iips idiopathic lymphoid interstitial pneumonia lip, idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis ippfe and two rare histologic patterns acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia afop, bronchiolocentric pattern of interstitial pneumonia bpip are described.
Pdf idiopathic interstitial pneumonias researchgate. Current guidelines recommend that the clinician, radiologist, and pathologist work together to establish a diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is critical to the management of patients with iip. Pdf smokingrelated idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a subset of diffuse pulmonary interstitial diseases classified by international consensus in 2002 as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias california thoracic society. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias lung and airway. Ild accounts for 15 percent of the cases seen by pulmonologists lung specialists. Overview of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias pulmonary. The word idiopathic means of unknown cause, so when the cause of interstitial lung disease is not identified, idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is diagnosed. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia nsip is a rare disorder that affects the tissue that surrounds and separates the tiny air sacs of the lungs. Introduction idiopathic interstitial pneumonias iips may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic iip. Describe the morphologic patterns associated with the iips.
Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia cleveland clinic. Classified into 8 histologic subtypes, all are characterized by varying. Pdf clinical and radiological features of idiopathic interstitial. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias iips are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from damage to the lung parenchyma by varying patterns of inflammation and fibrosis. Interstitial lung disease interstitial lung disease ild is a broad category of lung diseases that includes more than disorders which are characterized by scarring i. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia iip, or noninfectious pneumonia are a class of diffuse lung diseases. Prognostic differences among patients with idiopathic. Exclusion of other known causes of interstitial lung disease eg, toxic effects of certain drugs, environmental ex. As described in the 2002 statement, the pathology of ipf is that of usual interstitial pneumonia uip.
The presence of honeycombing on highresolution computed tomography is a good surrogate. An official american thoracic societyeuropean respiratory society. Clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists should exchange information to determine the diagnosis in individual patients. There are seven recognized distinct subtypes of iip. Under current guidelines, a uip pattern on ct images is specific for ipf after a thorough clinical and serologic workup has excluded other causes of interstitial lung disease ild. Interstitial lung diseases are a group of diffuse parenchymal lung disorders associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Demystifying idiopathic interstitial pneumonia pulmonary. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias iips are a group of di. Usual interstitial pneumonia an overview sciencedirect topics.
Pdf steroidresponsive idiopathic interstitial lung. Interstitial lung disease ild is a group of many lung conditions. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a heterogeneous group of poorly understood diseases with often devastating consequences for those afflicted. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias radiologic clinics. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias iips are a group of diffuse inflammatory diseases of the lung of unknown etiology in which. Considerations in the differential diagnosis include infection, connective tissue disease, acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ipf, drug effect. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a subgroup of interstitial lung diseases of unknown etiology and are associated with variable radiologic features, response to therapy, and clinical course.
Ct features of the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern. Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, diffuse fibrosing alveolitis, usual interstitial pneumonitis. The diagnosis and management of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia have challenged physicians since its initial description more than a century ago. What every radiologist should know about idiopathic interstitial pneumonias1 learning objectives for test 1 after reading this article and taking the test, the reader will be able to. Table 2 update of the classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias major idiopathic interstitial pneumonias idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease desquamative interstitial. These air sacs, called the alveoli, are where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place between the lungs and the bloodstream. Cigarette smoking is a key factor in the development of numerous pulmonary diseases.596 566 635 509 1493 1063 1303 953 591 194 1248 579 520 568 397 579 20 41 736 1552 1593 1179 1005 1029 1349 1279 718 1372 1417 1571 776 581 760 1051 581 1017 177 818 839 738 241 767 1239 1250