Host status of five weed species and their effects on pratylenchus zeae infestation of maize. Weed control treatments increased grain yield and yieldrelated traits of maize as compared to weedy check. Investigation of the damage caused by weeds competing with. Weed dw was suppressed significantly by sowing cover crops in both soybean and maize. Weed competition with soybean can cause substantial reductions in yield potential table 3. Effect of weeding management on the performance of local. Appropriate crop rotation, tillage practices, and cover crops 4. Effect of different weed control methods on growth and yield.
Maize can withstand weed competition upto3 4 weeks early in the growing season and weeds that emerge at 6 9 weeks after planting wap do not cause significant maize yield losses. Elucidating the apparent maize tolerance to weed competition in long. Plant residues oferythrina poeppigiana trees 10 tha dry matter. Weeds compete with the corn plants for resources such as light, nutrients, space, and moisture that. Effect of the maizeweed competition on the biomass and yield production of. Competition between plants practically did not influence growth and nutrient contents of maize but reduced weed growth.
Articles from journal of nematology are provided here. Ten genotypes of maize, classified into two groups, i. Weed control efficacy and economics of preemergence. Weeds have many attributes undesirable to crop producers, not the least being the ability to reduce crop yields through competition for. Jun 28, 2001 read understanding maizeweed competition. The physiological process underlying grain yield gy loss in maize as a result of weed competition is not understood clearly. Host status of five weed species and their effects on. Direct competition for nutrient, moisture, light and space 2.
Chapter 8 integrated weed management in maize amit j. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, mealie crotalaria crotalaria sphaerocarpa was a good host. Pdf determining critical weed competition period in. They are more adapted to competition and, if not controlled, the maize yield will decline. Maize is a significant crop in hungary, cultivated on about 1. Integrated weed management in maize unlagronomy university. Although maize zea mays is a vigorous and tall growing plant, it is susceptible to competition from weeds, with losses greater than 30% commonly reported rahman 1985. Apr 01, 2012 the physiological process underlying grain yield gy loss in maize as a result of weed competition is not understood clearly. Several research reports have indicated that many herbicides can be used effectively to control weeds in maize shakoor et al.
Maize is widely cultivated throughout the world, and a greater weight of maize is produced each year than any other grain. Argentina, to determine the critical period of weed control in maize zea mays l. Generally, weeds reduce crop yields by competing for light, nutrients, water. Although weed research in maize has broadened from an emphasis on herbicide technology to include studies of weedmaize competition, many studies only consider competition descriptively e. The focus of this thesis was to investigate the role of the shade avoidance response in determining the onset and outcome of crop weed competition in maize zea. Weed management in herbicide tolerant transgenic maize a. Experiments were carried out on fields in order to collect data on the effect of early weed competition on maize, including the competition for nutrients and the possible rate of nutrient removal. Maize is thought to have originated at least 5000 years ago in the highlands of mexico, peru, ecuador, andor bolivia because of the great density of native forms found in the region. Pdf determining critical weed competition period in maize. Pdf in central malawi zea mays fields, weed dry matter production was negatively correlated with maize population density.
Unique product, with one application rate for broad spectrum weed control. Effect of weeding management on the performance of local maize. Weed control during the first six to eight weeks after planting is crucial, because weeds compete vigorously with the crop for nutrients and water during this period. Weed management mainly focuses on annual weeds than perennial weeds.
Maize is most sensitive to weed competition during its early growth period. Maize is worlds one of the three most popular cereal crops. A weed is any plant growing in a wrong place, usually considered undesirable. This is a period of peak labour demand and the prospect of using chemical weed control to ease the situation is considered.
The lack of weed control increased dry matter of weeds aboveground part and decreased green ear yield and grain yield. In 2005 and 2006, an experiment nested within the trial was conducted to gain insight into this apparent crop tolerance to weed competition. We designed an experiment to test the hypotheses that early season stress caused by the presence of neighboring weeds will increase planttoplant variability ppv of individual plant dry matter pdm within the population. A field trial was conducted in which maize stands were thinned from a higher to a lower density at six. Some weeds are parasitic and poisonous to maize 25. Like many other crops, maize suffers the worst weed competition in the early stages of growth the critical period is usually the first 30 to 40. A critical period of competition, during which the crop should be kept clean, was demonstrated from 10 to 30 days after emergence. For this reason many researchers have been modelling weed competition in this crop in an endeavour to predict thresholds and yield losses. Effect of different weed control methods on growth and. Mellsop agresearch, ruakura research centre, private bag 3123, hamilton abstract the effect of early weed competition was determined for a maize zea mays crop grown in waikato. Maydica a journal devoted to maize and allied species.
Although weed research in maize has broadened from an emphasis on herbicide technology to include studies of weed maize competition, many studies only consider competition descriptively e. The objective of this study was to use the experimental structure of a critical time for weed removal study to examine the timing and effect of intraspecific competition on maize zea mays l. Interspecific competition in crop weed competition is defined as the competition between two species crop vs. Competition for nutrients between coldtolerant maize and. Maize is the most widely grown grain crop throughout the americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the united states in 2014. Density of mixed weed species was experimentally manipulated to achieve a broad range of weed infestation. Annual yield losses occur as a result of weed infestations in cultivated crops. How to successfully control weeds in maize without calaris. Oct 26, 2017 weed competition with soybean can cause substantial reductions in yield potential table 3. Weeds removing the most critical period of weed competition is during the first four to six weeks after emergence of the crop. Effect of weed control methods on weed density and maize. This weed suppression was associated with the increase of. Herbicides are widely used for weed control in maize production systems, but can have negative.
The value of weed competition data, given its variability between sites, is discussed. Knowledge of the weed species in a field and the competitiveness, emergence pattern, and density of the weed community can be used to develop effective herbicide programs and other management practices to minimize yield potential losses, herbicide. The potential of allye cropping systems to sustain a high productivity with low external inputs and the reduction of maize weed competition through weed suppression in different alley cropping and solecropped mulched systems was studied in costa rica at catie. Pdf study on the weedcrop competition for nutrients in maize. Sponsored by alliance for green revolution africa agra. Important weeds in maize article university of pretoria. Safe on all varieties of maize and ratoon sugarcane. Assessment of weed control methods for maize production by emerging farmers on commercial farms by garikai marava 12167071 submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree. Characteristics effects of weed on growth performance. Corn growth and yield in competition with weeds scielo.
Weed presence altered biotic stress and light signaling in. The critical period of weed control in corn ranges from 1 to 8 weeks after the crop. The full text of this article is available as a pdf 404k. Yield losses of soybean and maize by competition with. Maize weed control demands a long window of herbicide application and frequently variable target size of weeds within the crop. Hussain and others published determining critical weed competition period in maize zea mays l. Dense weed infestation of maize can result in significant yield reduction because of the competition for water and nutrients. Competition effects of weeds and leucaena leucocephala on a maize crop inal leucocephala forest introduction. This handbook is divided into eight chapters, covering a range of different control methods.
The treatments consisted of two different periods of weed interference, a critical weed free period, and a critical time of weed removal. In developing countries, maize is consumed directly and serves as staple diet for some 200 million people. The host suitability of five of the most common weed species occurring in maize zea mays l. Study on the weed crop competition for nutrients in maize article pdf available in communications in agricultural and applied biological sciences 684 pt a. Herbicidal efficacy of atrazine for weed control in maize. Data were recorded eight years after establishment of the experiment. Uncontrolled weeds reduced grain yield of maize upto 52 per cent walia et al. This spring is the first season maize growers will no longer be permitted to use the key herbicide calaris, but with a greater emphasis on preemergence herbicides, growers can still achieve. For instance at early stages of maize cultivation, the weeds found to remove 9 times more of n, 10 times more of p and 7 times more of k. Appropriate planting patternsspacing and optimal plant density, improved timing, placement, and amount of nutrient application 3. Weeds compete with the crop of interest for growth factors including nutrients, moisture and space, and may completely suppress the crop if uncontrolled. More often than not, however, successful weed control requires the combination or sequential use of several methods called integrated weed management.
Plotlevel weed biomasscrop yield relationships indicated that weed crop competition di. The critical period of cropweed competition and weed threshold are two im. Weedcrop competition relationships differ between organic. There have been four principal and several minor theories regarding the origin of maize. This period needs immediate attention for the adoption of weed control measure. If weeds are not controlled properly during this period, it will negatively affect the growth of the maize plant and decrease its yield drastically. Maize zea mays, which is the third most important cereal crop of the world, is an important dual purpose crop used in human diet and animal feed. Competitive factors, in order of importance in maize weed competition, are water, nutrients and light. Zhao 2006 categorized two components of weed competitiveness viz.
While little research has been conducted into the cultural practice use of competitive maize cultivars for weed management, several studies have documented. In developed countries, maize is consumed mainly as secondcycle produce, in the form of meat, eggs and dairy products. A significant negative linear correlation was observed for weed biomass and grain yield. Study on the weedcrop competition for nutrients in maize. Mechanisms of yield loss in maize caused by weed competition. Effects of common lambsquarters chenopodium album l. Critical period of weed competition in three vegetable crops in relation to management practices. The growth of maize plants in the first week is rather slow and it is during this period that weeds establish rapidly and become competitive. Crop relative yield, as a percentage of the weed free test, as a function of duration of competition i. The 3d nozzle has proven highly effective in delivering better results from both pre and postemergence applications. Beyond this period, well planted, and healthy growing maize would choke surrounding weeds sufficiently.
Suitable choice of mechanical, biological, and chemical weed control methods 5. Weeds are a major constraint to crop production, and are responsible for considerable yield losses in maize production systems throughout the world. Elucidating the apparent maize tolerance to weed competition. Overall, primextra gold proved more economical by giving maximum net profit. Characteristics effects of weed on growth performance and. Role of crop competition in managing weeds in rice, wheat. Weed control methods handbook, the nature conservancy, tu et al.
Weeds compete with the maize plant for water, nutrients, space and light some weeds become alternative hosts of pests and diseases. Table 1 pdf online shows additional information about temperatures. The grasses and broadleaf weeds had a similar influence on the growth and grain yield of maize. Pdf weed management in maize using crop competition. Growth analysis parameters for studying weed competition in maize.
This marked the end of critical period of crop weed competition in spring maize. Sep 11, 2016 best weed management practices to ensure best yield in maize. A few herbicides are recommended for weed control in maize in sudan. Analysis of traits related to weed competitiveness in sweet corn. Field studies were conducted in 2010 and 2011 at the teaching and research farm of the university of ilorin, nigeria 929 n, 435 e to evaluate the effect of early weed competition on the growth and yield of maize. Weeds compete with the maize for nutrients, water and space. So, crop weed competition indicates competition between crop and weed in a natural ecosystem in response to resources struggle for their existence and superiority. Pdf maizeweed competition and soil erosion in unweeded maize.311 1113 899 1236 1365 1238 922 533 1072 813 915 488 826 747 471 1564 1410 270 980 553 1075 403 474 595 285 770 216 315 1052 417 974 474 100 1201